One very important thing to remember about what Aristotle said is this: Aristotle says that it's really, really, really important to have a good topic when you're making an argument. His word is "topoi" (pronounced "TOE-PUH-WEEEEE!") but we'll just use the word topic because it is more modern.
Like, for example, take the peolpe in the photograph below. They wanted to make an argument but had to find a topic to make an argument about. So they thought about themselves and what they think and decided to run with The End of the World an dwith Jesus Christ. That's a pretty good Topic, though Jesus wasn't around when Aristotle was talking about topics.